China is one of the first countries in the world to invent rolling bearings

June 06, 2023

China is one of the first countries in the world to invent rolling bearings China is one of the first countries in the world to invent rolling bearings. According to archaeological relics and data, the oldest bearing with the prototype of modern rolling bearing structure in China appeared in Xuejiaya Village, Yongji County, Shanxi Province from 221 to 207 BC (Qin Dynasty). In 1280 AD (Yuan Dynasty), cylindrical rolling bearings were also used in ancient Chinese astronomical instruments. Although China was at the forefront of world civilization in the field of rolling bearing technology in history, the bearing industry in old China was very backward. After the founding of New China, especially since the 1970s, under the strong impetus of reform and opening up, the bearing industry has entered a new period of high-quality and rapid development. In the fifty years since the founding of the People's Republic of China, China's bearing industry has achieved brilliant achievements that have attracted worldwide attention!

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Bearings (rolling bearings for short) are widely used and demanding accessories and basic parts in the machinery industry, and are called mechanical joints. Due to the wide range of use, the diversity and complexity of bearing varieties are determined. Due to strict requirements, the importance of bearing quality and performance is determined. The bearing manufacturing industry is a kind of precision basic parts manufacturing industry. Its accuracy is measured by 0.001 millimeter (mm), while the manufacturing tolerance of ordinary mechanical parts is generally only 0.01mm. The noise and vibration of the motor depend to a large extent on the quality of the bearing; the swing and temperature rise of the spindle of a high-precision machine tool are closely related to the quality of the bearing. The performance of the bearing in the derotation device of the communication satellite directly affects its communication effect; the failure of the key bearing in aerospace and aviation will cause serious accidents. In short, the accuracy, performance, life, reliability and various economic indicators of hosts in various fields such as industry, agriculture, national defense, science and technology, and household appliances are closely related to bearings, and the development of the bearing industry is also related It affects the manufacturing level of my country's major technical equipment and the export capacity of machinery and equipment.

Bearings are playing an increasingly important role in the national economy and national defense construction: Before the founding of New China, the bearing manufacturing industry was almost blank. The bearings required for supporting and maintaining mechanical equipment basically rely on imports. At that time, there were only some bearing factories and shops in Wafangdian, Liaoning Province, Shenyang, Shanghai, and Changzhi, Shanxi Province, but there was no factory that could independently produce the four components of bearings (inner and outer rings, rolling elements and cages). 1949 In 2009, the annual output of bearings in China was only 138,000 sets. Over the past 50 years since China was established, the bearing industry has developed rapidly. The types of bearings have grown from few to many, the product quality and technical level have ranged from low to high, and the scale of the industry has grown from small to large. The development process of the bearing industry can be roughly divided into three stages: (1) Foundation-laying stage (1949-1957): In 1949, Wafangdian Bearing Factory resumed production and became the first enterprise in China to independently produce bearings. During the War to Resist US Aggression and Aid Korea, part of the Wafangdian Bearing Factory moved northward to Harbin. In April 1951, the Harbin Bearing Factory was built and put into production. In 1953, the bearing industry in Shanghai formed 4 central factories and more than 10 satellite factories including Qinfuxing Shaft Collar Factory, Shanggong Bearing Factory, Rongtai New Machine Factory and Jinxing Iron Factory.

With the assistance of the former Soviet Union, the Luoyang Bearing Factory, one of the 156 key projects in the country, broke ground at the end of March 1954, and began trial production of 136,000 sets of ordinary bearings in 1957. So far, the four main production bases of my country's bearing industry Wafangdian, Harbin, Luoyang and Shanghai have been initially formed, laying the foundation for the development of the bearing manufacturing industry. In 1957, the national bearing output exceeded 10 million sets for the first time. (2) System formation stage (1958-1977): This stage is in the development period of the country's five-year plan from "First Five-Year Plan" to "Five-Five Five-Year Plan", which brings new opportunities to the bearing industry. In the mid-term of the "First Five-Year Plan", Luoyang Bearing Factory passed the national inspection and acceptance in July 1958, and was successfully completed and put into operation; Shanghai Bearing Industry began to form a bearing industrial base with local characteristics; Wafangdian and Harbin Bearing Factory were enriched and improved, and achieved great develop. At the same time, scientific research and factory design institutions such as Luoyang Bearing Research Institute and the Tenth Design and Research Institute directly under the ministry have been established.

During this period, the bearing manufacturing industry developed rapidly to support new products for key main engines. It has begun to produce automobile universal joint needle roller bearings, magneto bearings, machine tool spindle bearings and precision bearings, and trial-produced railway locomotives, rolling mills, and heavy machinery. , Petroleum industry, aviation generators, tanks and other hosts required part of the supporting bearings. During the "two five" period, in order to adapt to the development of agricultural mechanization, in Chengdu, Hangzhou, Hefei, Wuxi, Jinan, Yantai, Shanghai, Beijing, Guangzhou 38 bearing factories (points) have been built successively in , Kunming, Changsha and other places, ushering in the first development peak period of China's bearing industry. These bearing factories have since developed into key enterprises in various provinces and cities. During the "Three Five-Year Plan" period, that is, from the mid-1960s, the focus of China's bearing industry construction investment was concentrated on the third-tier areas far away from coastal industrial development. In the construction of the third line, a number of bearing factories have been built in Hongshan, Guiyang, Lanzhou, Hailin in Gansu, Haihong in Shaanxi, Northwest in Ningxia, Haishan in Qinghai and Xiangyang in Hubei successively in the southwest, northwest and central south regions, further improving the enterprise. Layout.

Among them, Xiangyang Bearing Factory mainly produces automobile bearings. In the 1970s, that is, during the "Fourth Five-Year Plan" period, the bearing industry met the needs of "fighting the mines", and the Second Automobile Factory developed simultaneously and became a Emerging automobile bearing production bases. A number of local medium and small bearing factories have been established one after another, forming the second development peak period of China's bearing industry. During the upsurge of building factories in the early 1970s, there were more than 600 rolling bearing manufacturers nationwide. During this period, short cylindrical roller bearings, spherical roller bearings, and tapered roller bearings all developed rapidly, and the bearing varieties and specifications became more and more complete. In the early days of the "Five-Five Plan", China's bearing manufacturing industry gradually established Wafangdian, There are five distinctive production bases in Harbin, Luoyang, Xiangyang Bearing Factory and Shanghai Bearing Industry, as well as small and medium-sized bearing enterprises dotted around. And established a comprehensive scientific research and factory design organization and some professional factories of process equipment and testing instruments in the industry, forming a bearing industrial system with a basically reasonable layout, complete scientific research, production and logistics support.

According to the statistics of 171 major enterprises in 1977, the total industrial output value reached 1.01 billion yuan (70-year constant price), the bearing output was 120 million sets, the number of employees was 147,000, the main production equipment was 48,000 sets, and the original value of fixed assets was 1.49 billion yuan. The labor productivity of the total output value of all employees is 6,821 yuan/person·year, both of which have made great progress compared with the previous development period. (3) The stage of high-quality and rapid development (1978-1999): The convening of the Third Plenary Session of the Eleventh Central Committee of the Communist Party of China in 1978 opened a new page in Chinese history, and a magnificent tide of reform surged across the motherland. Under the guidance of Deng Xiaoping Theory, the bearing industry has continuously promoted reforms, expanded opening up, accelerated development, realized the liberation of productivity, significantly enhanced the comprehensive technical and economic strength, and increased its international influence. The industry has undergone historic changes and set off The third wave in the history of bearing industry development. During the "Sixth Five-Year Plan" period, the bearing industry implemented the policy of "Three Ups and One Improvement" of the Ministry of Machinery. Through technological transformation and technology introduction, the production layout was further improved, the production capacity of short-term products was enhanced, and economic benefits were improved.

At the same time of technology introduction, technical exchanges and cooperation with famous brand bearing companies such as Swedish SKF, Japanese NTN, NSK, and American TIMKEN have been carried out. During this period, new products such as sealed bearings, joint bearings, linear motion bearings, combined bearings, swing arm bearings, and harmonic drive bearings were developed. The bearing design level gradually approached (or partially reached) the advanced level of similar foreign products. Among them, the 777/650 rolling mill bearing produced by Wafangdian Bearing Factory has reached the international advanced level in service life and won the National Silver Award for High Quality Products. The B and C grade 3182120-3182122 and 2268120-2268122 machine tool spindle bearings produced by Harbin Bearing Factory won the National Quality Product Silver Award. The B3-706 and B3-707 precision optical coordinate boring machine spindle bearings designed by Luoyang Bearing Factory won the National Quality Product Gold Award.

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